The first lecture on the physical and chemical properties of nickel
☆ Nickel is a silver-white ferromagnetic metal and is the main component of many magnetic materials.
☆ Nickel also has good oxidation resistance and strong corrosion resistance.
Nickel is a silver-white ferromagnetic metal. The density is 8.9 g/cm3, and the melting point is 1455 °C.
The ancient Egyptians, Chinese and Babylonians all used meteorite iron with high nickel content as utensils. It can be said that nickel is both "old" and "young" metal.
Nickel is magnetic and is the main component of many magnetic materials.
Nickel also has good oxidation resistance. In the air, a NiO film is formed on the surface of nickel, which can prevent further oxidation.
Experiments have shown that nickel with a purity of 99% will not have rust marks within 20 years. Nickel has strong corrosion resistance, especially for caustic soda. In 50% boiling caustic soda solution, the corrosion rate of nickel does not exceed 25 microns per year.
Nickel also has good strength and plasticity and can withstand various pressure processing.
The second lecture on the use of nickel
☆ Nickel is widely used to manufacture various types of stainless steel, soft magnetic alloy and alloy structural steel.
☆ Nickel is the main material for the production of nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen batteries and nickel mesh.
☆ Nickel is also widely used in electroplating and catalyst production.
Nickel is used in large quantities to manufacture various types of stainless steel and soft magnetic alloys (which can be simply understood as: magnetic alloys that are easily magnetized under the action of an external magnetic field, and whose magnetic induction intensity (magnetic induction) basically disappears after the external magnetic field is removed. The main things we talk about here are Is a nickel-iron soft magnetic alloy.) and alloy structural steel.
Nickel and chromium, copper, aluminum, cobalt and other elements can form heat-resistant alloys, electrical alloys and corrosion-resistant alloys.
Nickel-chromium alloys (such as Ni-Cr20) have high heat resistance and large resistance, and the pyroelectric body (resistance wire) made of it can be used as electric heating elements for electric furnaces, electric soldering irons, electric irons, etc. Under long-term work; Ni-Cr9 and Ni-Cr10, although slightly poor in heat resistance, have large resistance, small temperature coefficient of resistance, and large thermoelectric potential, which are good materials for thermocouples.
Nickel-based heat-resistant alloys are mainly used for turbine engine turbine disks, combustion chambers and turbine blades. The famous "Monel" alloy is a corrosion-resistant nickel alloy containing copper, iron and manganese. It has high strength, good plasticity and corrosion resistance. It has become an important material in the manufacturing of electrical appliances, marine vessels and medical equipment.
A new orthodontic alloy—China Titanium-Nickel Beijing Nonferrous Metal Research Institute has successfully developed a titanium-nickel alloy with superelasticity and shape memory effect, which is an ideal orthodontic material. Orthodontics are achieved by utilizing the spring-back properties of metals.
Nickel-silicon alloys are often made into wires, strips, and rods for use in electronic tubes and electric vacuum instruments.
Nickel-iron and nickel-cobalt alloys are good magnetic materials. Nickel is the main material for the production of nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen batteries and nickel mesh. At the same time, nickel is also widely used in electroplating and catalyst production.
Lecture 3 Brief introduction of several preparation methods of metallic nickel
☆ Electrolysis ☆ Carbonylation ☆ Hydrogen reduction
①Electrolysis method. The enriched sulfide ore is roasted into oxides, reduced to coarse nickel with carbon, and then electrolyzed to obtain pure metallic nickel.
② carbonylation method. The nickel sulfide ore is reacted with carbon monoxide to form nickel tetracarbonyl, which is decomposed after heating to obtain metallic nickel with high purity.
③Hydrogen reduction method. Reduction of nickel oxide with hydrogen to obtain metallic nickel
1. Mainly used for alloys and catalysts, can be used to make currency, etc.
2. Used to make stainless steel and other anti-corrosion alloys, such as nickel steel, nickel-chromium steel and various non-ferrous metal alloys.
3. For ceramic products, special chemical utensils, electronic circuits and the preparation of nickel compounds.
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